Bitumen emulsions, which are produced by emulsification of bitumen with water, are used in the whole range of road maintenance and construction works, including: production of cold bitumen mixes, asphalt surface dressings, adhesive surface dressings, precoatings, concrete impregnation, filling road surface cracks, stabilisation of slopes, etc. In Greece, only cationic type emulsions are used, as opposed to anionic ones, the difference lying in the kind of surface charge of the bitumen particles. Apart from this method of classification, cationic emulsions are generally distinguished by their different setting (breaking) rates. Number 1 refers to rapid setting time of emulsions. From number 2 to number 5, the materials are progressively classed as medium to slow. In Greece, two types of cationic emulsions are used, with setting rates of 1 and 5.
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